ANTONINUS PIUS°, Roman emperor (ruled 138–161); the successor of hadrian . Antoninus Pius generally continued the policies of his predecessor. His most notable achievement was in the field of law which he insisted be administered impartially. In regard to the Jews, and particularly in Judea, Hadrian's harsh policies were repealed. Although still not allowed to proselytize, those born as Jews were freely permitted their traditional methods of worship, and the schools and the synagogues were openly reestablished. (Alan Richard Schulman) -In Talmud and Aggadah A Roman emperor named Antoninus forms the subject of a number of aggadic statements, dialogues, and stories in the Talmud and the Midrashim, in all of which he is described as in the company of R. judah ha-nasi . The talmudic sources refer to more than one emperor; they distinguish, for instance, between Antoninus senior and Antoninus junior (Eccl. R. 10:5), but the attempts of scholars to fit these accounts into the historic framework of the period of the Antonines have proved unsuccessful. The discussions with Antoninus include dialogues on the relationship between the body and the soul, the power of the evil inclination, and matters of state. They contain no data by which it would be possible to determine with certainty the attitude of the dialogists to the problems that were constantly discussed in the philosophical schools in the period of the Antonines. In the dialogues and stories, the Jewish patriarch excels the Roman emperor in wisdom and in moral stature, but the two are good friends and show complete trust in, and respect for, each other. Antoninus' attitude to Judaism is one of reverence. A rabbinic dictum has also been preserved according to which Antoninus would be the first righteous proselyte to be accepted in the messianic era (TJ, Meg. 3:2, 74a). Underlying the talmudic and midrashic stories there is undoubtedly an element of historic truth; they testify to the good relations that were established for a time in the period of the Antonines between the Roman authorities in Palestine and the Jewish sages. The form of government in the Roman Empire, which in the second century C.E. was to a certain extent federal, made it possible for the people of the different countries of the Empire to express their views before the emperor not only on the form of government, but also on religious and ethical questions. The tales about Antoninus and R. Judah ha-Nasi were widely current among the people. A number of them, as, for example, the parable of the lame man and the blind (Sanh. 91a–b) are found in comparatively early works of Jewish literature (see the ezekiel apocryphon 1; cf. James, in: JTS, 15   (1914), 236) and are derived from the treasury of folk wisdom. Accounts of disputations and conversations of a similar nature (between other rabbis and Roman dignitaries) have been preserved in talmudic and midrashic literature. There are also extant (non-Jewish) Greco-Roman texts containing disputations and dialogues of this type between various individuals and Roman emperors. (Joshua Gutmann) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Hoffmann, in: MWJ, 19 (1892), 33–55, 245–55; S. Krauss, Antoninus und Rabbi (1910); R. Leszynsky, Loesung des Antoninusraetsels (1910); S. Lieberman, Greek in Jewish Palestine (1942), 78 ff.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Antoninus Pius — Münchner Glyptothek …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Antoninus Pius — • Roman Emperor (138 161) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Antoninus Pius     Antoninus Pius     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Antoninus Pius — Antoninus Pius,   mit vollem Namen Titus Aurelius Fụlvus Boionius Ạrrius Antoninus, römischer Kaiser (seit 138) südgallischer Herkunft, * Lanuvium (heute Lanuvio, bei Velletri) 19. 9. 86, ✝ Lorium (bei Rom) 7. 3. 161. Antoninus wurde von… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Antoninus Pius — Antoninus Pius, eig. Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus, Adoptivsohn und Nachfolger Kaiser Hadrians von 138 bis 161 nach Chr., ein friedliebender, gerechter und milder Regent …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Antoninus Pius — Antonīnus Pius, Titus Aurelius Fulvus, röm. Kaiser, 138 161 n. Chr., geb. 86 zu Lanuvium, Adoptivsohn und Nachfolger Hadrians, ein friedliebender, gerechter und milder Regent, adoptierte Marc Aurel, seinen Nachfolger. Seine Gemahlin war die… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Antoninus Pius — A.D. 86 161; Rom. emperor (138 161) …   English World dictionary

  • Antoninus Pius — Infobox Roman emperor name = Antoninus Pius title = Emperor of the Roman Empire full name = Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (from birth to adoption by Hadrian); Titus Aelius Caesar Antoninus (from adoption to accession); Caesar… …   Wikipedia

  • Antoninus Pius — /puy euhs/ A.D. 86 161, emperor of Rome 138 161. * * * in full Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius born Sept. 19, 86, Lanuvium, Latium died March 7, 161, Lorium, Etruria Roman emperor (AD 138–161). Of Gallic origins, he served… …   Universalium

  • Antoninus Pius — biographical name A.D. 86 161 Roman emperor (138 161) …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Antoninus Pius — Antoni′nus Pi′us [[t]ˈpaɪ əs[/t]] n. anh big a.d. 86–161, emperor of Rome 138–161 …   From formal English to slang

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.